We are interested in fundamental physics problem concerning atoms, molecules and more generally solids. The surface of solids is of particularly high interest because many phenomena take place at the surface. Additionally, the surface breaks the translational symmetry of the solid and leads to spatial confinement, creating unique physical conditions. Extraordinary examples are surface states, which mediate interactions and can be applied to e.g. quantum corrals and other interesting phenomena.
Studying atoms and molecules on surfaces gives new insights on many effects. Thanks to the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) we can image, probe and manipulate single atoms on a surface. New exciting opportunities appear when atoms can be controlled one by one. Our group is devoted to studying experimentally and theoretically all aspects of atom, molecule and nanostructures on solid surfaces. Besides the many opportunities granted by all different types of atoms and molecules (magnetic, non-magnetic, reactive, non-reactive, vibrational, rigid etc) the substrate is also extremely important. We study metals, semiconductors, insulators and superconductors, that create completey different environments with extraordinary properties.
A case of great interest is the impurity problem. The impurity problem refers to the physics of a magnetic atom in a non-magnetic host. If the host is metallic, the flow of electrons hybrizing with the atomic states lead to an effective flip of the magnetic moment of the atom. If the temperature is very low, the flips become coherent. The phase of the wavefunction is well defined and all electrons become correlated. The ground state of the system is a humangously unique wave function. This is the Kondo effect. The STM gives unprecedented insight into the Kondo effect by studying the conductance between a metallic tip position a few Ångströms away from the impurity and the holding substrate. Recently , we have shown that a group of impurities that individually cannot correlate the substrate’s electrons, when they entangle quantally, they create the Kondo many-body ground state.
When the substrate is superconducting, the impurity problem experiences a twist. The superconductor’s ground state is already a many-body state of paired particles (cooper pairs). It is impossible to inject a single particle in this ground state. The STM shows signal if the bias is larger than the pairing energy of the ground state particle. In this case, the electron energy is enough to break the Cooper pair and single-particle states are available in the conduction process. An impurity can trap states that will give a signal inside the superconducting gap. Indeed, the local magnetic moment acts as a magnetic field that splits the Cooper pair, creating single particles in the gap. We have recently shown the orbital structure of these in-gap states .
Entangled impurities are an extra level of complexity. On a superconductor they lead to the appearance of Majorana fermions. A Majorana fermion is its own antiparticle. Two Majorana fermions annihilate. The strategy is to create a chain of magnetic atoms that host two Majorana fermions at their edges to avoid their annihilation. These particle are compound due to the mixing of Cooper pairs in the presence of spin-orbit and magnetic interactions. Contrary to the other quasiparticles of superconductors, the Majorana fermions do not follow the Fermi-Dirac statistics, they are actually anyons, following fractionary statistics. Majorana fermions in this case is a misnommer and the more precise Majorana bound state should be used. Our present studies of magnetic atoms on a superconductor are very promising. Using the atomic manipulation capabilities of the STM, we can esamble chains of magnetic atoms on the superconductor and study the in-gap states . Our calculations predict that twenty chromium atoms are in the topological phase leading to Majorana bound states.
Our work takes place with several international groups, leading to many publications in high-impact journals. Let us briefly cite our collaborations with the groups of Dr. Laurent Limot (Strasbourg) see the publications . Prof. Dr. Richard Berndt (Kiel) see . Prof. Dr. Rolf Moeller (Duisburg-Essen) see . Dr. Jean-Pierre Gauyacq (Paris) .
Dr. Nicolás Lorente
Dr. Deung-Jang Choi
Dr. Vladimir Zobac
Dr. Carlos García
Mr. José Reina
Former Group Members
Dr. Silvana Radescu (Universidad de La Laguna) Postdoc 2003-2004
Dr. Ricardo Rurali (ICMAB, Barcelona CSIC) Postdoc 2004-2006
Dr. Serge Monturet (Education officer EIT RawMaterials, EU) Thesis Toulouse 2008
Dr. Nora González (Outreach officer in DIPC) Thesis San Sebastián 2009
Dr. Richard Korytár (Professor Charles University Prague) Thesis Barcelona 2011
Dr. Frederico D. Novaes (Software development Sao Paulo) Postdoc 2010-2012
Dr. Roberto Robles (postdoc ICN2 Barcelona) Postdoc 2011-2014
Dr. Mikaël Képénékian (Rennes, CNRS) Postdoc 2011-2013
Dr. Paula Abufager (Rosario, CONICET) Postdoc 2013-2014
 Building complex Kondo impurities by manipulation entangled spin chains. Deung-Jang Choi, Roberto Robles, Sichao Yan, Jacob A. J. Burgess, Steffen Rolf-Pissarczyk, Jean-Pierre Gauyacq, Nicolás Lorente, Markus Ternes and Sebastian Loth
Nano Letters 17, 6203 (2017)
 Mapping the orbital structure of impurity bound states in a superconductores. Deung-Jang Choi, Carmen Rubio-Verdú, Joeri de Bruijckere, Miguel M. Ugeda, Nicolás Lorente and José Ignacio Pascual. Nature Communications 8, 1575 (2017)
 Influence of magnetic ordering between Cr adatoms on the Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states of the β-Bi2Pd superconductor. Deung-Jang Choi, Carlos García Fernández, Edwin Herrera, Carmen Rubio-Verdú, Miguel M. Ugeda, Isabel Guillamón, Hermann Suderow, José Ignacio Pascual, and Nicolás Lorente. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2018)
 Efficient Spin-Flip Excitation of a Nickelocene Molecule. Maider Ormaza, Nicolas Bachellier, Marisa N. Faraggi, Benjamin Verlhac, Paula Abufager, Philippe Ohresser, Loïc Joly, Michelangelo Romeo, Fabrice Scheurer, Marie-Laure Bocquet , Nicolás Lorente, and Laurent Limot
Nano Letters 17, 1877 (2017)
 Spin Control Induced by Molecular Charging in a Transport Junction. Sujoy Karan, Carlos García, Michael Karolak, David Jacob, Nicolás Lorente, and Richard Berndt
Nano Letters 18, 88 (2018)
 Imaging the dynamics of individually adsorbed molecules. Johannes Schaffert, Maren C. Cottin, Andreas Sonntag, Hatice Karacuban, Christian A. Bobisch, Nicolás Lorente, Jean-Pierre Gauyacq, and Rolf Möller. Nature Materials 12, 223 (2013)
 Correlation-Mediated Processes for Electron-Induced Switching between Néel States of Fe Antiferromagnetic Chains. Jean-Pierre Gauyacq, Simeón Moisés Yaro, Xavier Cartoixà, and Nicolás Lorente. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 087201 (2013)